Esther y Fortunata, dos heroínas de Balzac y Galdós respectivamente, dos víctimas de la sociedad decimonónica

Abstract: (Esther and Fortunata, Two Heroines of Balzac and Galdós, Two Victims from Nineteenth Century Society) Esther and Fortunata, two heroines of Balzac and Galdós, two victims from nineteenth century society. The critics had always bought Galdós with Balzac, being recognized as the two illustrious represents of European realism. Furthermore, Galdós himself confessed his admiration for the French writer. Esther is the heroine of the novel “Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes”, written by Balzac and Fortunata is the heroine of “Fortunata y Jacinta”, written by Galdós. The two protagonists fall in love with selfish and hypocrite men who are going to give up on them when they will be useless. Lucien and Juan are unfriendly and self-possessed, they only believe in themselves y they sacrifice these two women for growing up in stature in this society. Not only Esther, but also Fortunata fall in love and become mistresses of the men who love them. Lucien and Juan preffer to get married with women who have a superior social class and they don’t want to get married with these two women because they come from a low social class, even though they love the women. The two women have good feelings, but they have to prostitute because the nineteenth century society doesn’t offer them the possibility of survive. The two writers don’t judge their protagonists, it is better if they only feel sorry for them and show them sympathy. In this article we propose showing the attitude of the two writers well-known before the destiny of the women of his era.

Keywords: Balzac, Galdós, realism, women, society

Resumen: Los críticos han comparado siempre a Galdós con Balzac, reconociéndoles como dos ilustres representantes del realismo europeo. Además, Galdós mismo confesó su admiración por el escritor francés. Esther es la heroína de la novela Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes, escrita por Balzac y Fortunata es la heroína de Fortunata y Jacinta, escrita por Galdós. Las dos protagonistas se enamoran de hombres egoístas e hipócritas, que no dudan en usarlas y en abandonarlas cuando ya no las necesitan. Lucien y Juan son fríos y calculadores, piensan solamente en sí mismos y sacrifican a las dos mujeres para triunfar en la sociedad. Tanto Esther como Fortunata se enamoran y se convierten en amantes de los hombres que aman. Lucien y Juan prefieren casarse con mujeres de una clase social superior y se niegan a contraer matrimonio con las dos mujeres de clase baja, a pesar de amarlas. Las dos mujeres son dignas y de buenos sentimientos, pero se ven obligadas a prostituirse, porque la sociedad decimonónica no les ofrece otra posibilidad de sobrevivir. Los dos autores no juzgan a sus protagonistas, parecen más bien compadecerlas y sentir cierta simpatía hacia ellas. En el artículo nos proponemos desentrañar la actitud de los dos escritores preclaros ante el destino de las mujeres de su época.

Palabras clave: Balzac, Galdós, realismo, mujer, sociedad